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Technology-Aided Instruction and Intervention (TAII)

Instruction or intervention in which technology is the central feature the technology is specifically designed or employed to support the learning or performance of a behavior or skill for the learner.

Evidence Based
Ages: Skip to Evidence

Steps for Implementation

Computer/Tablet-Aided Instruction (CAI)

Step 1. Identifying the Target of Instruction

  1. Refer to Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) to identify the learner’s goals.
  2. Discuss goals with IFSP/IEP team members, including family and learner.
  3. Select and operationalize an observable and measurable goal as a target of instruction.

Step 2. Collecting Baseline Data

  1. Collect baseline data appropriate for the targeted skill.
  2. Collect data on at least three occasions to establish an accurate baseline for the targeted skill.

Step 3. Identifying Technology Support

  1. Identify technology support personnel in the school/program building.
  2. Identify technology support personnel within the district.
  3. Review district policies concerning the use of computer technology.

Step 4. Identifying Available Computers for Use

  1. Gather information about general computer specifications.
  2. Check schedules for computer availability for classroom, media centers, or libraries.
  3. Develop a schedule for the learner’s use of available computers and share with others.

Step 5. Identifying Appropriate Software

  1. Check available software on existing accessible computers.
  2. Ask school/program staff about their use of software.
  3. Ask learners and their families about preferred software.
  4. Inquire about appropriate software from vendors and retail stores, if necessary.
  5. Examine preview options and return policies prior to purchase.

Step 6. Selecting and Installing Software

  1. Select software that:
    1. explicitly teaches the target skills or behavior,
    2. is age-appropriate,
    3. is compatible with the computer(s) identified in Step 4, and
    4. is user-friendly.
  2. Install software and make it accessible for learners.

Step 7. Learning Software

  1. Try out the program before introducing it to the learner.
  2. Select a starting point that is a good match with the learner’s interests and abilities.

Step 8. Completing a Task Analysis of Steps for Using Software

  1. Complete an analysis of the steps for accessing the designated software within CAI, and provide it to the learner.
  2. Create a troubleshooting guide for the computer software and provide it to the learner.

Step 9. Teaching Software to Others Who Support the Learner

  1. Introduce the software to those who work with the learner at school and at home.
  2. Link the use of the software to the targeted skill.
  3. Provide support persons with the task analysis for computer use.
  4. Provide support persons with sufficient time to try out the program themselves and ask questions.

Step 10. Teaching the Learner Basic Computer Skills, if Necessary

  1. Provide opportunities for the learner to practice basic computer skills.
  2. If necessary, identify artificial reinforcers to pair with computer use to promote learner engagement and to teach basic computer skills.

Step 11. Introducing the Learner to Software

  1. Explain to the learner how the program will help him/her learn and practice the targeted skills.
  2. Model the task analysis for accessing the program.
  3. Demonstrate basic program functions, if necessary.
  4. Give the learner time to interact with the program while providing feedback and assistance.

Step 12. Providing Learner with Multiple Opportunities to Use Computer

  1. Schedule regular times for the learner to use the CAI.
  2. Identify other opportunities at school and at home for the learner to use the computer and program during free time.

Step 13. Providing Ongoing Support to Learner

Provide the learner with access to staff members for assistance and to answer questions during CAI time.

Step 14. Collecting Data on Acquisition of Target Skill

  1. Collect data on the target skill in a format similar to baseline data collection.
  2. Use these data to make instructional decisions regarding the targeted skill or behavior.

Research and Outcomes

Research Summary

Age Range: 0-22

Skills: Communication, social, joint attention, play, cognitive, school readiness, academic/pre-academic, adaptive/self-help, challenging/interfering behavior, motor, mental health

Settings: Home, school, community

Evidence Rating: Evidence Based

The information found in the Research Summary table is updated following a literature review of new research and these ages, skills, and settings reflects information from this review.

Outcomes Matrix

The Outcomes Matrix shows outcome areas by age for which this evidence based practice is effective
Age: 0-5 6-14 15-22
Academic/Pre-academic Yes Yes Yes
Challenging/Interfering Behavior Yes Yes
Cognitive Yes Yes Yes
Communication Yes Yes Yes
Joint Attention Yes Yes Yes
Mental Health Yes Yes
Motor Yes Yes
Play Yes Yes
School Readiness Yes Yes Yes
Social Yes Yes Yes
More about Intervention Outcomes

Technology-Aided Instruction and Interventions (TAII) are those in which technology is the central feature of an intervention. Given the rapid rise in the inclusion of technology in interventions, this evidence base is more focused to include technology that is specifically designed or employed to support the learning or performance of a behavior or skill for a learner. Interventions that use a more general form of technology to deliver an alternative EBP (e.g., displaying a visual support on a mobile device, video modeling, alarm on a phone as part of self-management) are not included in this evidence base. TAII includes technologies such as robots, computer or web-based software, applications for devices, and virtual networks. The common features of these interventions are the technology itself (as noted) and instructional procedures for learning to use the technology or supporting its use in appropriate contexts (Steinbrenner, et al., 2020).

When using TAII, it is important to first look at the learner's academic or behavior goals, then look for technology that may help the learner meet that goal rather than find a form of technology, then attempt to use it to perhaps meet a learner's goal. The focus should be on the learner's goals, not on the technology.

• Manualized Interventions Meeting Criteria: MindReading software, FaceSay™ (Symbionica, LLC) software

• Note: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) that incorporates technology is part of the evidence base for AAC and not TAII. Therefore, the steps for implementation of Speech Generated Devices (SGD) are listed in the TARGET under Augmentative and Alternative Communication.