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Video Modeling (VM)

Video modeling (VM) is a mode of teaching that uses video recording and display equipment to provide a visual model of the targeted behavior or skill.


In video modeling (VM), the model is shown to the learner, who then has an opportunity to perform the target behavior, either in the moment or at a later point in time. Types of video modeling include basic video modeling, video self-modeling, point-of-view video modeling, and video prompting. Basic video modeling is the most common and involves recording someone other than the learner engaging in the target behavior or skill. Video self-modeling is used to record the learner displaying the target skill or behavior and may involve editing to remove adult prompts. Point-of-view video modeling is when the target behavior or skill is recorded from the perspective of what the learner will see when he or she performs the response. Video prompting involves breaking the behavior into steps and recording each step with incorporated pauses during which the learner may view and then attempt a step before viewing and attempting subsequent steps. Video prompting can be implemented with other, self, or point- of-view models. Video modeling strategies have been used in isolation and also in conjunction with other intervention components such as prompting and reinforcement strategies.

VM meets evidence-based criteria with one group design and 31 single-case design studies. According to the evidence-based studies, this intervention has been effective for toddlers (0–2 years) to young adults (19–22) years with ASD. VM can be used effectively to address social, communication, behavior, joint attention, play, cognitive, school-readiness, academic, motor, adaptive, and vocational skills.

Brief adapted from

Plavnick, J. B. (2013). Video modeling (VM) fact sheet. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Franzone, E., & Collet-Klingenberg, L. (2008). Overview of video modeling. Madison, WI: The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.

Research Summary

Ages (yrs) Skills Settings Outcome
3-19 Social, self-help, communication, motor, play Home, school, clinic, community
The information found in the Research Summary table is updated yearly following a literature review of new research and this age range reflects information from this review.

Outcomes:     Evidence-based     Emerging     No evidence     Comprehensive

Steps for Implementation


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