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Parent-Implemented Intervention (PII)

Parent-implemented Intervention (PII) entails parents directly using individualized intervention practices with their child to increase positive learning opportunities and acquisition of important skills. Parents learn to implement such practices in their home and/or community through a structured parent training program.


Parent-implemented intervention (PII) includes programs in which parents are responsible for carrying out some or all of the intervention(s) with their own child. Parents are trained by professionals one-on-one or in group formats in home or community settings. Methods for training parents vary, but may include didactic instruction, discussions, modeling, coaching, or performance feedback. Parents may be trained to teach their child new skills, such as communication, play, or self-help, and/or to decrease challenging behavior. Once parents are trained, they proceed to implement all or part of the intervention(s) with their child.

PII meets evidence-based criteria with 8 group design and 12 single-case design studies. According to the evidence-based studies, this intervention has been effective for toddlers (0–2 years) to elementary school-age learners (6–11 years) with ASD. PII can be used effectively to address social, communication, behavior, joint attention, play, cognitive, school-readiness, academic, and adaptive skills.

Brief Adapted from

Hendricks, D.R. (2009). Overview of parent-implemented intervention. Chapel Hill, NC: The National Professional Development Center on ASD, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina.

Schultz, T. R. (2013). Parent-implemented intervention (PII) fact sheet. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders

Research Summary

Ages (yrs) Skills Settings Outcome
0-11 years Social, communication, behavior, joint attention, interpersonal, play, cognitive, school readiness, academic, adaptive Home, school, community
*The information found in the Research Summary table is updated yearly following a literature review of new research and this age range reflects information from this review.

Outcomes:     Evidence-based     Emerging     No evidence     Comprehensive

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