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Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test – Second Edition (UNIT-2)

The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test – Second Edition (UNIT-2; Bracken & McCallum, 2015) is a set of individually administered tasks that measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents from ages 5 years through 21 years, 11 months who may be have speech, language, or hearing impairments; have different cultural or language backgrounds; or be verbally uncommunicative. As such, the UNIT-2 provides a fair assessment of culturally and linguistically different examinees.

Overview

The UNIT-2 offers three administration options: Abbreviated Battery (10–15 minutes), Standard Battery (45–60 minutes), and Full Scale Battery (45–60 minutes). The UNIT-2 has six subtests (Symbolic Memory, Nonsymbolic Quantity, Analogic Reasoning, Spatial Memory, Numerical Series, and Cube Design), each with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. In addition, there are seven composite scores: Memory, Reasoning, Quantitative, Abbreviated Battery, Standard Battery With Memory, Standard Battery Without Memory, and Full Scale Battery, each with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

The normative sample has been updated from the previous version; an upward extension of normative tables though age 21 years, 11 months has also been added. It is noteworthy that the UNIT (first edition) has been criticized because it was not user friendly and required extra time for the practitioner to become proficient in its administration (Fives & Flanagan, 2002). In addition, the UNIT-2 has many small physical pieces that may be a choking hazard.

Summary

Author (yr) Age Range (yrs) Method of Administration/Format Approx. Time to Administer Subscales
Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test – second edition (UNIT-2) Bracken & McCallum (2015) 5.0–21.11 (years and months)

Individually administered, norm-referenced measure of nonverbal intelligence; seven batteries: Abbreviated, Standard with Memory, Standard without Memory, Memory, Reasoning, Quantitative, and Full Scale.

Yields standard scores, percentiles

10–45 min. (abbreviated, standard, extended batteries)

Symbolic Memory, Nonsymbolic Quantity, Analogic Reasoning, Spatial Memory, Numerical Series, Cube Design

Availability: Psychological Assessment Resources, https://www.parinc.com/Products/Pkey/469

Research

Author (yr) Sample Size Topic(s) Addressed Outcome
Aiello (2013) 20 children with ASD - Age Range: 9-14 years Validity in ASD

The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of children with ASD across two IQ tests. The WISC-IV and the UNIT were administered with modifications to 20 children with ASD between 9-14 years. While the Full Scale IQs for both tests were strongly correlated, r = .93, Dependent t=tests revealed that on average, participants’ Full Scale IQ was higher on the UNIT t(10) = 6.12, p<.0005, with a 10.6 point between the two tests. No differences were noted in off-task behaviors.

Author (yr) Sample Size Topic(s) Addressed Outcome
Bell, McConnell, Lassiter, & Matthews (2013). 121 referred to special education - Age range: 1st–11th-grade students Validity

The purpose of this study was to compare the UNIT with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III). Both tests were administered using standard protocol. Dependent t=tests revealed that on average, participants’ Full Scale IQ score on the UNIT (M= 82.88, SD = 12.69) was significantly higher than scores obtained on the WJ-III Broad Reading (M=71.59, SD=12.79), Broad Math (M=78.9, SD=14.12) and Broad Written Language Scores (M=73.09, SD=12.12). Pearson correlation coefficients between the UNIT and the WJ-III reveal that all of the UNIT quotient scores were moderately associated with WJ-III Broad Math cluster scores (correlation coefficients ranged from .35 to .64). However, all of the UNIT quotient scores demonstrated a weak but significant relationship with the WJ-III Broad Written Language cluster scores (correlation coefficients ranged from .22 to .36). The Symbolic Quotient of the UNIT associated significantly with all three areas of achievement, whereas the Nonsymbolic Quotient, Reasoning Quotient, and Memory Quotient test scores were only significantly associated with Broad Math and Written Language scores

Author (yr) Sample Size Topic(s) Addressed Outcome
Edelson (2005) 35 - Age Range: 4-18 years Validity

Study sought to determine whether social deficits affected test scores on the TONI-3 and Analogic Reasoning (AR) subscale of the UNIT.

The TONI-3 and AR subscale of the UNIT were significantly correlated (r(35) = .56, p <.01) meaning that only 31% of the variation in TONI-3 is in common with the UNIT

The mean score on the two measures were not significantly different t(34) = 1.43.

Subjects in the high real-world knowledge group (RWK) scored significantly better on TONI-3 items that drew on real-world knowledge than on the AR subscale t(15) = 2.036, p <.06.

Subjects in the low real-world knowledge group scored better on the TONI-3 than the AR subscale; however, the difference was not significant.

When age was controlled, the low RWK group scored better on the AR subtest than the TONI-3, while the high RWK subjects scored significantly better on the TONI-3 than the AR subscale (F(1,32) = 6.411, p< .05. The authors concluded that subjects who completed more RWK items scored lower on the AR subscale than the TONI-3. Authors concluded that in spite of the tests being correlated, the measures may not be appropriate for a given population.

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