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Test of Written Language – Fourth Edition (TOWL-4)

The Test of Written Language – Fourth Edition (TOWL-4; Hammill & Larsen, 2009) is a test of written composition for students aged 9 to 18. It can be administered individually or in a group. The measure can help identify students in need of specialized support and document progress in a writing program.


The TOWL-4 yields composite quotients for overall writing, contrived writing, and spontaneous writing. There are seven subtests on the TOWL-4 that measure a student’s writing competence through both contrived tasks (e.g., spelling, punctuation, word usage) and spontaneous writing. The TOWL-4 includes the following subtests: vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, logical sentences, sentence combining, contextual conventions, and story composition.


Author (yr) Age Range (yrs) Method of Administration/Format Approx. Time to Administer Subscales
Test of Written Language –Fourth Edition (TOWL-4) Hammill & Larsen (2009) 9-18

Individually or group administered, norm-referenced measure of written expressive skills. Yields composite scores for Overall Writing, Contrived Writing, and Spontaneous Writing

60-90 ,min.

Vocabulary, Spelling, Punctuation, Logical Sentences, Sentence Combining, Contextual Conventions, and Story Composition

Availability: Pro-Ed,

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