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Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC-2)

The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC-II; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004) is an individually administered measure of the cognitive processing abilities of children and adolescents ages 3 through 18.


The KABC-II is a theory-based clinical instrument that contributes to culturally fair assessment. The KABC-II offers two global summaries: the Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI), which includes all five scales, and the Mental Processing Index (MPI), which includes the first four scales but not the Knowledge/Crystallized Ability Scale. The test manual states: “Measures of Gc (general cognition) should be excluded from any score that purports to measure a person’s intelligence or overall cognitive ability whenever the measure of Gc is not likely to reflect that person’s level of ability.”

The KABC-II offers a Nonverbal Scale (NVI), which yields a nonverbal index to assess the processing and cognitive abilities of children with whom a nonverbal measure of cognitive ability is appropriate. The Sequential Processing/Short-Term Memory Scale is designed to measure the ability to solve problems by remembering and using an ordered series of images or ideas. The Simultaneous/Visual Processing Scale measures the ability to solve spatial, analogical, or organizational problems that require the processing of many stimuli at one time. The Learning Ability/Long-Term Storage and Retrieval Scale measures the ability to successfully complete different types of learning tasks. Immediate recall and delayed recall tasks are included in this scale. The Planning/Fluid Reasoning Scale measures the ability to solve nonverbal problems that are different from the kinds taught in school. Verbally mediated reasoning must be used to solve the problems. The Knowledge/Crystallized Ability Scale measures knowledge of words and facts using both verbal and pictorial stimuli and requiring either a verbal or pointing response.


Author (yr) Age Range (yrs) Method of Administration/Format Approx. Time to Administer Subscales
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (KABC-II) Kaufman & Kaufman (2004) 3-18

Individually administered, norm-referenced measure of cognitive and processing ability; based on Luria’s processing model and the Cattell- Horn-Carroll (CHC) Model; 18 core and supplementary subtests; co-normed with the KTEA-II

Yields scaled scores and percentiles for subtests, standard scores and percentiles for index, and composite scores

30–75 min.

Luria Model: Sequential Index, Simultaneous Index, Planning Index, Learning Index, Knowledge Index, Mental Processing Index, Nonverbal Index

CHC Model: Short Term Memory, Visual Processing, Long-Term Storage and Retrieval, Fluid Reasoning, and Crystallized Ability, Fluid-Crystallized Index

Availability: Pearson Assessment,


Author (yr) Sample Size Topic(s) Addressed Outcome
Bardikoff & McGonigle-Chalmers (2014) 30 (15 high functioning ASD, 15 typical) - Age Range: 12.4-16.8 (years) Nonverbal IQ in ASD

Authors used the nonverbal scale of the KABC-II (NVI) to assess nonverbal components of the WISC-IV (specifically, Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI)).

Results: (1) No significant group differences were found for the PRI subscale of the WISC-IV nor for the NVI subscale of the KABC-II; however, significantly lower scores were obtained for the PRI versus NIV for children with ASD only.

(2) ASD group scored significantly lower than controls on the Processing Speed Index of the WISC-IV. This supports the need to isolate timing criteria when testing IQ in individuals with ASD, which is now the case with the WISC-IV.

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